Most of the Runes suggested as those of ‘English’ were from a Mr. Bruce Dickens and were in “The Story of English” by Robert Burchfield. Only the rune and an alphabetic symbol were given. I supplemented the list with additional information by reading about the meanings from Nigel Pennick’s books on runes. He is not responsible for how I apply the runes to English. I study their use in a great many words and their use as different parts of those many words. Three additional runes which were included in the languages but, not necessarily in the /English/ alphabets. One of these is the rune for QU which I have included in the initial ‘Alphabetic Equivalents’ because Q is in our current /abcdeary/. This word is spelt several ways and I’m taking the liberty of experimental spelling -to see what works. Also, I’m deliberately repeating the ‘Q’ in this ‘-Part Two’. There is a rune for ‘eth’, the only other rune I think might have been in one of the initial four English(s). That
Eth rune is a variant of Odal and is the only one to change names from one futhark to another. Since it refers to ‘ancestral property that is not salable’ Odal or /odd-all/ describes the sense thoroughly. The Eth sense element can be declined using Ehwaz Thorn without losing any sense in the word.
There are also some sense elements with such significant principles that I thought there should be a representative symbol. They were entered into the languages but, were not put into any runic form that I’ve found. It has finally occurred to me that my expectations derived from my not accepting the fact that peoples’ languages were a new phenomenon of the First Millennia A.D., the Common Era, the beginning of the common man. Up til this time, there was a division between City States and wandering tribes that seized properties, and the inhabitants, and kept them until someone stronger came along. If we take a close look at our religious texts and look at the ‘histories’ and the ‘myths’ which have come down to us, whether they’re Hindu, Hebrew, Christian, Muslim, Buddhist or any I haven’t mentioned, the facts become apparent. The common Man was becoming self-aware, aware of his own will and aware of the Great Power in the world around him. I suddenly flashed on the story of
Abram and Sarai and how they became Abraham and Sarah, the ah representing the touch of divinity, the awareness of ‘self’. In English that is the ‘inner elf’. Hence, they became aware of freedom, free will, self mastery and the importance of their tribe, their children. I didn’t take notice of that until Tacitus made some crack about their excessive attachment to their children.
Which takes me back to those significant principles which lacked a representative symbol. I just wrote three of them in various ways: *ah* as in a-, ah, ‘aware’. *wer* as in aware, war, *el* as in self, elf. One of the books in my bibliography is “Ogham, Consaine and Tifinag Alphabets-Ancient Uses” by Warren W. Dexter. In it he traces the history of Baal El and the different ways it has been written in both Semitic and Celtic writing. He shows Ogham notation being used to write these words. In the same book there is a section where he has excerpts from a text showing that the great philosophers, whose writings have been handed down to us, had to be translated from a type of ogham notation. The writings looked like little fir trees. The decoding of the philosopher’s writings was done by Abu Ben Washih, an Arabic scholar. If all of these philosopher’s writings were done in a type of hash-marks, there is no reason to suppose that there was any writing other than the
idiographic notation used by various tribal groups or City States to keep track of some ‘bookkeeping’. I see no indication of any kind of complete language, one with which we could question and discuss ideas. For some time after we got our languages, all the translating done was done in monasteries. From what I’ve been reading, they were writing in an “insular Latin”, which was the Irish version of Latin. The linguist Jesperson said Latin speakers at different monasteries could not understand one another’s Latin. To me that suggests they Latinized their own insular dialect. We’ve done that to English with some senseless results. We need our own language to keep the sense straight.
This is to make the point that we had no peoples’ languages until they were constructed during the First Millennium. We also have no pure languages or pure bloodlines- as we presently use the term. When people speak of Romans being literate and able to read and write, for all we know Julius Caesar may have written his writings in his own ‘hashmarks’ since all we have of his writings are translations which were copied in monasteries. This makes it clear to me that the mythic story of the Babel-Loth alphabet, /Destruction of Babel alphabet///is//poetically true. This is the only way that the code I found in our English language could make sense of words translated into English from such a broad range of seemingly unrelated languages. There has to be a sound/sense correlation in the code itself. Another book, The Source of the Present Civilization by Mikoto Masahilo Nakazono regarding the /Kototama Principle/, covers this correlation among vowels. I read, but confined myself
to the English code and sense elements. This is a broader course of study.
There are two more sense elements which I put on the list of runes, along with their alphabetic sense. I’m not certain when all three made their way into English officially. It may have taken some time for ‘political’ reasons. IOR (-ior-), CWEORTH (-qu-) and AR (-ar-) These parts of our alphabetic structure may not and probably will not be in alphabetic order. If they are, it is coincidental. There are stories involved and I may tell some of it in order to give some context to the involved subject. The principles represented in these three runes are fundamentals of being a freeman in every sense of the word.
I felt some consternation over the rune AR, a new order, a bountiful harvest. All right, we have two letters A. Is this going to be another wholey trinity thing, all things in threes? So, how does one handle this completion? Then I took note of the story of ‘King’ Arthur. Coincidental, I think not: Arth is the territory of a new order, of Ur energy, Ar is a New Order, a bountiful harvest, and a ‘King’ is by definition, one of ones’ own ‘kin’. We have self-determination facing down the Roman Empire and that is a brave move. The rest of the ‘Arthur’ story speaks to changes the British and Irish Celts were making in their way of life. CW-EORTH is the Celtic Beltane bonfire, runically it is teams of minds establishing a transformative territory, QU always equals questing though QU is very Italic, the ‘kw’ sound represents the sound and the visual image of inspiration, the chalice or cauldron. IOR is also about transformation: the snake at the base of ‘the world tree’ which
is believed to shift the world as it moves; also savior, senior and junior, all are transformative. This is all about transformation of Roman order, world order period, the people of Ireland had gained complete language and had also received a new set of Law, Freedom and Responsibility. It was a short and beautiful new age founded on Free-Will, self-control and a code called the Brehon Laws. In the context of the ‘Historic Timeline’, there was a very obvious continuation of the striving for Man’s freedom and his “right to choose his own master” as King Ælfred phrased it. If there is still any doubt about the referent ‘sex’ of ‘his’ and ‘Man’, recall Boadwicca’s war against Roman imperialism and its’ paternalistic slavery.
There were many such transformative educational events, peaceful and otherwise, during that intermittent period called ‘Dark Ages’. Again, I’ll decline the term, having given applicable examples: D ‘Duir, Day’ continuity and endurance; AR ‘a new order’; K CALC ‘cauldron of inspiration’; A AC ‘the oak, a substantive; GE ‘a going, an active way of be-ing into the distance of time/place; S SIEGEL ‘sun spirit’. While Rome was changing, the common man (worldwide) was quite active. A closer reading of events show that mankind was making rapid changes in developing literacy, literature, religions and businesses. The Celtic, Semitic, Nordic and many other tribes of peoples were traveling the world and settling in places far from home, taking land and founding cities. Norsemen founded Dublin and ruled parts of Ireland while people were making languages. The Norsemen also became quite literate rulers, invaders and traders. Such involvement in foreign communities does not lead to
‘racial purity’; however, it does result in vital, and also quite comely, varieties of Humans. So, let’s decline ‘purity’: P Peorth ‘a birthing or coming into being, unfolding or unfurling of a leaf, flower or fetus; UR group energy; IT a regulated, charged particle; Y Yr off into the distance or future. Concisely, one could say, ‘generations of handsome, sturdy Irish with thick blonde or red hair.
Back to Alphabetic Equivalents, another set was made available. We had two of these in English, TH and GH but, they set the pattern for others. We also had the sounds of ‘ch’ which was originally written as Thorn. Now we also recognize ch, dh, ph, rh, sh, wh. There are others which use this format and which we often attribute to other languages. The ah in Abraham and Sarah, which represents the touch of divinity, keeps its sense when translated to English and has a similar sense in ‘aware’, which the Japanese spell /ah ware/ according to “Tale of the Heike”. Aware is a variant spelling with that sense, ‘touch of divinity’ or conscious. This is the use of h as a structural beam, subtly changing both sound and sense.
However, I include these in our alphabetic schema because the idea, the sound and the sense are all compatible with the two which are already in English by way of the runes. Each letter uses ‘H’ as a structural beam of the sense with which it is teamed, as in dharma which is a new order that has the weight of a natural law. We have ah, bh, ch, dh, eh (Ehwaz), gh, kh, ph, rh, sh, th, wh,
The other set of equivalents were set as a pattern in both runes and in the Italic: They are all vowels: The ones which set the pattern are æ, ea and œ, eo. We also have io, which suggests oi. While we only have four runes which are vowel digraphs, they set the pattern for many more. The letter ‘y’ is a “sometime” vowel and the letter ‘w’ used to be listed as a vowel in McGuffey’s readers of the early 1900s. Since our language used to have ‘uu’ as an accepted letter, both uu and w should be accepted. The letter ‘y’ also has enough history to qualify for its use in ‘ye’, ‘myth’ and mystic. With the number of vowels in our language we have in excess of forty available /substantives/. An example of changing sense is transforming io of IOR would be the oi of oid, -shaped or formed like. We use several more of our vowels in English and I will cover those when they demonstrate the sense in a sense element. When we think of vowels, we usually think of sounded or vocalized
letters. That is so but, the subject is a lot larger as a vowel also recognizes something substantive. It is not just a sound. See the vowels in Part 1, Alphabetic Equivalents.04-28-2017JOH
- Judith has written (and re-written) the pages below, initially for a book and now for this website. These files are still under revision, and should not be treated as stable documents.